Palace Complex: Structures, Reliefs, and Inscriptions
This section deals mainly with the architecture of the palace complex, and its buildings and embellishing reliefs. These date entirely from the Achaemenian period (518–331/30 B.C.) except for a few remnants of post-Achaemenid structures.
An inscription carved on the southern face of the Terrace proves that Darius the Great was the founder of Persepolis. Work was started about 518 B.C., although the tremendous task was not completed until about 100 years later by Artaxerxes I. Before any of the buildings could be erected, considerable work had to be done. This mainly involved cutting into an irregular and rocky mountainside in order to shape and raise the large platform and to fill the gaps and depressions with rubble.
According to tablets inscribed in Old Persian and Elamite found at Persepolis, it seems that Darius planned this impressive complex of palaces not only as the seat of government but also, and primarily, as a show place and a spectacular center for the receptions and festivals of the Achaemenian kings and their empire. Darius lived long enough to see only a small part of his plans executed. His brilliant and grandiose ideas were taken up and followed by his son and successor Xerxes, who, according to an excavated foundation inscription, said: “When my father Darius went (away from) the throne, I by the grace of Ahuramazda became king on my father’s throne. After I became king…what had been done by my father, that I also (did), and other works I added.”4 Actually, the Persepolis we know is mostly the work of Xerxes.
In dealing with the Persepolis platform, we have to understand that the northern part of the Terrace, consisting mainly of the Audience Hall of the Apadana, the Throne Hall, and the Gate of Xerxes, represented the official section of the Persepolis complex, accessible to a restricted public. The other part held the Palaces of Darius and Xerxes, the Harem, the Council Hall, and such. Following is a brief enumeration of the buildings, and their most outstanding features, that constitute the Terrace complex.
- Reconstructed Plan of the Persepolis Terrace, PS 563
- Diagram of the Persepolis Terrace, a Key to the Structures, PS 488
- Oblique Air View of Persepolis. Direction Approximately NW, AE 477
- Aerial View of the Terrace of Persepolis, AE 349
- Persepolis Terrace and Environs, an Air View. From an altitude of 2440 meters, taken on April 20, 1936, AE 252
- Persepolis Terrace, Vertical Air View, AE 485
- Persepolis Terrace, Oblique Air View. Direction Approximately S-SE, AE 560
- View of the Terrace with Stairway: at Right, the Apadana, with the Ruins of the Throne Hall behind It; at Extreme Right, Palace of Darius, P 22436
- Panorama of the Excavations of the Persepolis Terrace, P 57905
- Southern Part of W Face of Terrace. Direction of View Approximately N, P 1600
- W Face and Stairway of Terrace, P 126
- Foundation Inscription in Elamite and Babylonian of Darius I, from the S Face of the Terrace, P 58202
- Drum of a Column, from the NW Corner of the Terrace, P 24776
- View of the Apadana, SE Portion, before Excavation, P 59089 (Forms Panorama with P 59090)
- View of the Apadana, SE Portion, before Excavation, P 59090 (Forms Panorama with P59089)
- Excavating the Apadana, View from the SW, P 59136
- SW of the Council Hall, Steps Lead to S Apadana Area, View from the E, P 59167