Patterns Of Occupation At Nippur


  1. E. McCown and Richard C. Haines, Nippur 1: Temple of Enlil, Scribal Quarter, and Soundings, OIP 78 (Chicago, 1967) 156-57.
  2. S. Fisher, Excavations at Nippur (Philadelphia, 1905) p. 20; McCown and Haines, Nippur 1 157.
  3. especially John P. Peters, Nippur (2 vols.; New York, 1897), and Fisher, Nippur (1905). I must thank Prof. Robert Dyson and former directors of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania for allowing copies to be made of photographs and notes from the Pennsylvania expedition. Much of the work was done by Diane E. Taylor, who assembled a great part of the scattered records and has made her copies available to me.
  4. V. Hilprecht, Explorations in Bible Lands during the l9th Century (Philadelphia, 1903).
  5. and Haines, Nippur 1 150-57 and pl. 5.
  6. and Haines, Nippur 1 157.
  7. and Haines, Nippur 1 157; McGuire Gibson, Excavations at Nippur: Eleventh Season, OIC 22 (Chicago, 1975) 7.
  8. P. Hansen, "The Pottery Sequence at Nippur from Middle Uruk to the End of the Old Babylonian Period (3400-1600 B.C.),"in Robert W. Ehrich (ed.), Chronologies in Old World Archaeology (Chicago, 1965) pp. 201-208.
  9. Nippur pp. 11, 49.
  10. Fisher, Nippur pp. 21-48.
  11. Fisher, Nippur p. 28.
  12. In the winter of 1989, after the Rencontre in Philadelphia, we carried out the 18th season of excavations at Nippur. In a new operation, Area WF, near our pit WA50c, we exposed Early Dynastic levels at about two meters above present plain level. This finding would indicate that even if we expose several more meters of Early Dynastic occupation, there is a very good chance that there are Uruk and earlier levels below.
  13. Personal communication.
  14. Fisher, Nippur p. 49 n. 5.
  15. Fisher, Nippur pp. 49-56.
  16. Fisher, Nippur pp. 54-55.
  17. McCown and Haines, Nippur 1 40.
  18. Personal communication.
  19. McCown and Haines, Nippur 1 156.
  20. Richard L. Zettler, "The Ur III Inanna Temple at Nippur" (unpub. Ph.D. diss.; University of Chicago, 1984) p. 20.
  21. Ibbi-Sin, in his year-date 6, records buitding the walls of Nippur. In our excavations in Area WC-3, during 1987, we found Amar-Sin bricks, originally made for Ekur, reused in a building that lies under the Ur III city wall, giving a terminus post quem for the city wall's construction. We have evidence that the citv wall was out of use by Isin-Larsa times, so its construction best fits with the inscriptionally attested activity of Ibbi-Sin.
  22. McCown and Haines, Nippur 1 74-77.
  23. Judith A. Franke, "Area WB," in McCuire Gibson et al. (eds.), Excavations at Nippur: Twelfth Season, OIC 23 (Chicago, 1978) 53-lO6 and Judith A. Franke, "Artifact Patterning and Functional Variability in the Urban Dwelling: Old Babylonian Nippur, Iraq" (unpub. Ph.D. diss.; University of Chicago, 1987).
  24. Etizabeth Stone, Nippur Neighborhoods, SAOC 44 (Chicago, 1987).
  25. John A. Brinkman, A Catalogue of Cuneiform Sources Pertaining to Specific Monarchs of the Kassite Dynasty, MSKH 1 (Chicago, 1976) 239, Q.2.115.168.
  26. Brinkman, MSKH 1 36-37.
  27. Gibson, Twelfth Season pp. 66-70.
  28. McGuire Gibson, "Excavations at Nippur, 18th Season, 1988-89," Sumer (in press).
  29. McGuire Gibson, "Nippur: New Perspectives," Archaeology 30 ( 1977) 26-37; McGuire Gibson, "Nippur 1975," Sumer 34 (1978) 118-19
  30. Gibson, "Excavations at Nippur, 18th Season, 1988-89," Sumer (in press), correcting McGuire Gibson, Richard L. Zettler, and James A. Armstrong, "The Southern Corner of Nippur: Summary of Excavations During the 14th and 15th Seasons," Sumer 39 (1983) 23.
  31. In his doctoral dissertation "The Archaeology of Nippur from the Decline of the Kassite Kingdom to the Rise of the Neo-Babylonian Empire" (unpub. Ph.D. diss.; University of Chicago, 1989), James A. Armstrong has successfully demonstrated the need for drastic changes in the stratigraphy of Area TA on the basis of our excavations in Areas TC and WC, combined with a new study of the records of Area TA. These stratigraphic changes and his rearrangement of ceramic criteria (as published in McCown and Haines, Nippur 1) are critical for a general understanding of Babylonia during its Dark Age.
  32. Donald E. McCown, Richard C. Haines, and Robert D. Biggs, Nippur 2: The North Temple and Soundings, OIP 97 (Chicago, 1978) 38.
  33. Gibson, Eleventh Season p. 73.
  34. John A. Brinkman, A Political History of Post-Kassite Babylonia, 1158-722 B.C. (Rome, 1968) 113.
  35. Brinkman, Political History pp. 122, 134, 138-39.
  36. Brinkman, Political History p. 140.
  37. G. Buccellati and Robert D. Biggs, Cuneiform Texts from Nippur: The Eighth and Ninth Seasons, AS 17 (Chicago, 1969) 16 no. 56; Brinkman, Political History p. 134.
  38. Brinkman, Political History p. 152.
  39. Personal communication from Steven Cole.
  40. Gibson et al., Twelfth Season pp. 72-73.
  41. Gibson, "Excavations at Nippur, 18th Season, 1988-89," Sumer (in press).
  42. McCown et al., Nippur 2 39.
  43. McCown et al., Nippur 2 39.
  44. Gibson, Eleventh Season p. 18.