1994-95 ANNUAL REPORT
K. Aslihan Yener
During 1994/95, K. Aslihan Yener and her colleagues began processing the data from the excavations at Göltepe and Kestel. Lectures were delivered on the results of the analyses at the Society for American Archaeology, Anaheim, California; the XVIth International Symposium of Excavations, Surveys, and Archaeometry, Ankara, Turkey; the Chicago Academy of Sciences and the Archaeological Institute of America; and Milwaukee society of the Archaeological Institute of America on the Tin Processing Sites of Göltepe and Kestel. In January 1995, she attended a special workshop entitled "Göltepe: A Research in Progress Workshop on the Bronze Age Archaeometallurgy of Southeastern Turkey," at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland. She was also the commentator of a special session on the Archaeology of Empires in Anatolia during the American Schools of Oriental Research meetings in Chicago. This will be published in the Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research . A special issue of Biblical Archaeology honoring the newly retired director of excavations at Bogazköy, Peter Neve, will also feature her article on "Swords, Armor and Figurines: a Metallurgical View from the Taurus Mountains." Another article written jointly with Bryan Earl, "Tin Smelting at the Oriental Institute," The Oriental Institute News & Notes 146 (Summer 1995): 1-5, appeared this year.
In addition to her work with the excavations and artifacts, Yener has devoted her remaining time to organizing the impending new excavations in the Amuq Valley next year. Between 1932 and 1938 Robert Braidwood led an expedition for the Oriental Institute that surveyed the Amuq Valley, located near Antakya (modern Antioch) in Turkey (then in Syria), and found 178 mounds. They excavated the mounds of Çatal Höyük (Antakya), Tell al-Judaidah, Tell Tayinat, Tell Dhahab, and Tell Kurdu. In 1991 Professor Douglas Esse of the Oriental Institute received permission from Ankara to re-excavate Çatal Höyük, but unfortunately his untimely death delayed undertaking the excavation. The new work there is intended to be the first phase of a multiphase investigation. In this initial phase we hope to excavate a multi-period mound Çatal Höyük and Karaca Khirbet Ali, a small, neighboring Chalcolithic mound. An ongoing effort of archaeological and geomorphological surveys of the settlements in the Amuq Plain and the Amanus Mountains form the other arm of the project. This includes intensive archaeological survey, modern land use survey, geomorphological survey, and investigation of mining sites in the neighboring Amanus Mountains.
The new work in the Amuq Valley brings completion to Yener's lead isotope analysis findings in the 1980s that were designed to locate the source of the metals used in antiquity. The published results of the Taurus Mountain analyses had indicated that a number of Chalcolithic, Early Bronze Age, and Late Bronze Age metal artifacts from the Amuq were made from central Taurus ores, especially the Amuq G figurines, which are, to date, the oldest tin bronzes in the Near East. Finding the lowland workshops where the actual crafting is done lends immediacy and relevance to this project.
The results of the lead isotope analyses regarding metal from sites in the Mediterranean area, such as the Kas-Uluburun shipwreck off the coast of Turkey, as well as the methodology of the tests have appeared in an article, "Comments on P. Budd, D. Gale, A. M. Pollard, R. G. Thomas and P. A. Williams, `Evaluating Lead Isotope Data: Further Observations,'" by E. V. Sayre, K. A. Yener, E. C. Joel in Archaeometry 35 (1995): 7-12. More information on this method will appear this year in the Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology .
Revised: February 7, 2007