The Religious Iconography of Cappadocian Glyptic in the Assyrian Colony Period and its Significance in the Hittite New Kingdom
A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Division of the Humanities in Candidacy for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
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Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
University of Chicago
Committee: McGuire Gibson
The purpose of the present study is to analyze the themes and motifs on native Anatolian seal impressions representative of the Cappadocian glyptic of the Assyrian Colony period. The analysis is made from many points of view and on many levels. The local glyptic is studied in the context of other glyptic styles, such as Old Babylonian, Old Assyrian, Middle Assyrian, and Mitannian. A precise identification of objects utilized on the local Anatolian glyptic is attempted, using textual evidence and giving archaeological parallels for pottery types, etc. The general character of the deities represented on the local glyptic is formulated and comparisons are made with later written evidence. The composition of the local glyptic is analyzed with regard to the scenes of Presentation, Adoration, etc. An attempt is made to relate these themes to the worship of Wurusemu, Telipinu, dLAMA.LÍL, Hatepinu, Sulinkatti, Pirwa, dGAL.ZU, dZA.BA4.BA4, and other gods described in the written texts and shown on the art of the Old Hittite and later periods, especially those to whom performances are given by the "Kanish singers."
The popularity of the deities in the different periods is studied by counting the number of occurrences, for example in Kültepe level II compared to level lb. The occurrences of certain deities are compared with possible historical and religious reconstructions; and the sub-groups of local Anatolian glyptic are analyzed in order to ascertain whether the divisions help in our understanding of the heterogeneous Anatolian population (Hattian, Indo-European, etc.). The use and modification of deities and themes are traced from the beginning of the Assyrian Colony period through the Neo-Hittite period.
The figures and plates in the dissertation are a unique feature. They include representations of actual cylinder and stamp seals in line drawing form. Transparencies of previously published photographs were used which allowed the traced images to accurately depict the nature of the seal impressions including minute iconographical details.